Future Work and Family BalanceFuture Work and Family Balance

Future Work and Family BalanceFuture Work and Family Balance essay

For decades, people look for harmony between work and family. Despite these two concepts of life relating to each other, they affect each other directly. As some people consider work as a means of getting joy, creativity, self-realization, some others have a different perception towards work. They define work as monotony and necessity. People work to get the money to pay bills, buy food and clothing, pay for school and support their family. The problem of balance between family and work is one of major concerns of sociologists and psychologists nowadays. The essay will focus on analyzing three trends that are anticipated to affect how workers balance their work and family life in the future.

 

Work as a context for growth and personal development rather than only a way to earn a living. This trend has an influence on the relationship between work and family life in the future. The current trend among many people is working for personal developments as opposed to the initial approach to work where most people considered working in order to earn. It is seen that in the future people will focus more on their personal development and therefore there ought to have more cohesion between family life and work. As it is noted by Dr. Wallen (2002), “The emergence of a tightening labor market and the increased emphasis on human resources as a competitive element serve to underpin the importance of developing innovative ways of raising labor supply. Family-friendly policies can serve a dual purpose. They should not only be business oriented but should also meet the needs of employees with family responsibilities” (p.42).

 

Continuing technological advances that allow for increased flexibility in where and how work is completed. Due to the continued technological changes, it is expected that work done manually will reduce. This also has an influence on the time spent while working. Therefore, workers will be left with more time left to spend with their families. In her study, Balancing Work and Family: the Role of the Workplace, Jacqueline Wallen notes that the types of working arrangement can be categorized into two broad groups in terms of their different levels of flexibility. Temporal flexibility relates to variations in the number of hours worked and includes less than full-time work (including job-sharing and other forms of part-time working), flextime, career breaks and term time working. Locational Flexibility relates to the choice of working location and varying the geographical location of the workplace to meet the changing needs of employers and or employees. This is a new form of flexible working. It is rapidly developing with technological advances, particularly in the information technology (IT) area.

 

Further in Chapter 14, Wallen says ‘new work arragments have the promise of producing new ways of thinking of work and family’ The author uses the term ‘old and new paradigms for work’. A new approach to a problem implies a change of view on the problem. For example, changing concepts such as ‘consumerism’ to ‘appropriate consumption’, ‘people fit jobs’ – ‘jobs fit people’ and so on. Wallen admits: ’In the new paradigm identity is seen as transcending one’s job, partly because there is less emphasis on job security and achieving stability and more willingness to change jobs and to take risks’ (Wallen, 2002, p.139). In the future job market will be more aggressive because of the fact that more talented people will be attracted by companies that give them better working conditions (flexible work, part-time work, work sharing etc.) However Wallen says, that in the new paradigm of work there are some disadvantages and the author finds some decisions to upgrade it.

 

Increasing importance of family caregiving, childcare, elder care and caring for family members with illness or disabilities is another trend that will have an influence on the future family. With the current trends among different people, there is a change on how people view family duties. More working people are not only working on their duties in their businesses but are also sparing time for their families. Currently, many people are According to the recent study performed by researchers of Michigan State University, a growing number of workers who do not have families and children cannot find the time and energy to engage in their hobbies. They are less satisfied with their lives and show more signs of depression and anxiety. Ann Marie Ryan, a professor of psychology at Michigan State University and one of the study’s authors, states that according to the respondents, after having performed their duties at work, they have no energy or desire to spend time with friends or entertain themselves in any other way (Keeney, Boyd, Sinha, Westring & Ryan, 2013). Many large companies focus on finding balance between work and family and tend to ignore the specific needs of workers without families. Jessica Keeney advises organizations to seek and improve their policies in relation to employees, and consider offering bonuses such as flexible working hours not only to parents raising children, but also to the single employees. (Keeney, Boyd, Sinha, Westring & Ryan, 2013).

 

In conclusion, the problem of balancing between work and family is important and requires solutions in the near future. With the current trends and people’s perception towards work and family life, future balancing is possible. Today’s companies and firms help employees balance work and family responsibilities in many ways. The problem of balancing between work and family is also complicated economic issues. Thus, the higher the wealth of the family, the easier it is to organize child-care and depend care.

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The Discriminatory Tendencies of Addiction

Drug addiction is a social problem that may have negative effects to the society. Richardson described addiction as a “diseases affecting the brain resulting from a change in the chemical pathways which occurs as a result of the highs and lows of repeated drug use” (Richardson). Overall, there are various factors that make certain groups of people more vulnerable to drug addiction in the society than others; therefore, whereas all individuals might develop addictive behaviors, some groups of people such as children of addicts, aggressive young men, people with diagnosed depression, and bipolar illness are often more vulnerable to addictive conditions, such state is propagated by factors such as family history, background of the neighborhood and the individual’s values and tolerance level thereby justifying the fact that addiction affects people in a discriminatory manner.

 

 First and foremost, addiction is determined by an individual’s age. Generally, young people are more vulnerable to addiction. Such a scenario is caused by the fact that teenagers tend to engage in experimental consumption of addictive drugs (Richardson). Satel noted that brain physiology is a central factor that influences the development of addictive behaviors among individuals (323). As such, teenagers are often more vulnerable to addictive conditions because of the fact that they are curious and tend to experiment every aspect of life.

 

In addition, an individual’s addiction ability may be influenced by frustration and hopelessness resulting from sexual molestation and other forms of abuse. Richardson reports that individuals who had been sexually abused during childhood are often more vulnerable to addiction as compared to individuals who had not undergone such trauma (Richardson). In addition, studies show that individuals who have various forms of mental complications are often more vulnerable to addiction as compared to people who do not have any complication.

 

Additionally, family history may influence an individual’s vulnerability to addiction. Richardson reported that individuals with family members who are addicted to drugs are often more vulnerable to addiction than those without an addicted family member. It is also believed parents who consume alcohol and other drugs tend to influence their children to develop addictive behaviors towards such drugs. In addition, certain individuals have genes that are more vulnerable to addiction as compared to others. Often individuals with such genes find it hard to quit the consumption of a given drug. On the other hand, some individuals possess genes that discourage them from getting addicted. For instance, some individuals have genes that make them feel uncomfortable whenever they consume an addictive drug.

 

Similarly, the nature of the surrounding neighborhood might also influence individuals to become drug addicts. It is believed that the numbers of individuals who are addicted to various drugs are often higher in poor income neighborhoods as compared to the high income neighborhoods. First and foremost, poor neighborhoods do not provide good role models to teenagers. As a result, young people in poor neighborhoods often perceive the use of drugs as a normal. Consequently, most teenagers engage in experimental drug use due to such attitude. Moreover, individuals staying in poor neighborhoods are often affected by depression and other mental problems due to the fact that poor neighborhoods are often associated with high unemployment rates, poor shelters and low living standards. Such factors make poor neighborhood residents more vulnerable to drug addiction as compared to residents of high income neighborhoods.

 

Furthermore, an individual’s attitudes, values, and behaviors may also influence the level of vulnerability of a particular individual to addiction (Satel 323). Generally, individuals who possess a higher level of tolerance for risk are more likely to engage in addictive drug abuse. On the other hand, individuals with low level of tolerance for risky behaviors often assess the effects of a drug based on the users’ health. Satel asserted that addiction “selects people who are bad at delaying gratification and gauging consequences, people who are impulsive, who think that they have little to lose, have few competing interests, or are willing to lie to a spouse” (323). As a result, low risk tolerant individuals are less likely to engage in addictive consumption of various drugs

 

In addition, children from unstable family backgrounds are more vulnerable to addiction. Such a scenario is caused by the fact unstable family backgrounds are often associated with ineffective parental guidance. As a result, children from such backgrounds may engage in drug abuse and ultimately become addicted to drugs. In addition, teenagers who drop out of school and children who have various academic challenges are often more vulnerable to addiction. Sometimes, unstable families might make children go through traumatic issues. For instance, some children are often exposed to domestic violence between the parents. As a result, such children may consume drugs continuously in order to help them neutralize the traumatizing memories of violence and other negative issues in their families. Unfortunately, such continuous use of a drug might result into addiction.

 

In conclusion, factors such as family background, an individual’s genetic makeup, and neighborhood background determine the extent to which one is vulnerable to addiction. Therefore, psychologists, addiction counselors and other relevant stakeholders should consider factors that predispose an individual to addiction to enable them offer effective counseling services to drug addicts.

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Socialization of Girls

Socialization of Girls essay

The society has socialized girls differently from boys. Right from childhood, girls are oriented to be emotional beings with high levels of emotional expression. For example, the society has socialized girls to adopt certain codes of behavior and values as normative. Girls have high levels of interactivity, socially and emotionally connected to network of friends which are made faster, lost faster and revived faster. Girls, therefore, have the ability to handle the ups and downs of friendships in a more secure way. For example, they can fight and tear into each other, report to the teachers, parents, and older siblings but will never hold grudges forever. Gender socialization has taught girls right from childhood to be forgiving and very accommodative and to be ladylike (Handel 301).

 

Social codes of conduct orient girls to be very emotionally expressive and will openly break down and cry over their hurt, pains and aches. However, this is only short-lived as girls soon overcome their disappointment and move on with life. Unlike boys, girls will openly avoid areas, things or people that they perceive to be a threat to them. Thus girls easily accept defeat, openly express their fears and weaknesses (Katz 221-2220). The social codes orient them that way. This way, girls are often too quick to admit that they need help especially when they are in danger since social values orient them to be cautious about threats, dangers and risks. Reading this background information will enable one to identify the role of gender socialization in gender specific traits and behaviors for both boys and girls.

 

Katz makes reference to code of conduct and the way in which the society uses this powerful tool to influence upbringing and socialization of children from childhood to adulthood (Katz 221). The codes have been used by the society as a weapon to influence both boys and girls to behave in a certain stereotypical and pre-determined ways. Implicitly, Katz views this approach to be detrimental since it shuts the potential of girls to achieve certain goals in life. Boys are also socialized not to run away from problems. This is risky because some risks are fatal and it is only prudent for one to flee irrespective of the sex. The socialization in childhood influences children’s prospects in adulthood.

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Enjoying While Waiting

Enjoying While Waiting essay

Travelling around Montreal, one cannot help but visit the beautiful and important places in the city. With the help of maps and travel guides, one can get to any destination in Montreal. One of these places is Mont Royal, the station of the Montreal Metro, which is part of the city’s Orange Line and is a fast system of transportation. Société de Transport de Montréal controls and operates Mont Royal. The station is located in the Le Plateau-Mont-Royal district, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was opened in 1966, on October 14. The station is currently represented as a part of Montreal’s metro. The design of the metro station was developed by Victor Prus. Mont Royal station is built in a tunnel. The station’s single transept level mezzanine serves as the entrance. The station’s artwork has been created with the help of 32 narrow vertical aluminum poles at a platform. Those were created by a talented Quebec artist Charles Daudelin. Also, the place was re-designed and new artwork was added, namely, a poem by Gérald Godin, which is bricked into the facade of the building. Open arrival at this place, one is attracted to the vibrant and authentic surrounding. It is a truly scenic place.

 

This station is named after the Mount Royal Avenue. It is called so, because it leads to the foot of Mount Royal. There is colorful kiosk at the station. It is located at the entrance of the train station. This is strategic since everybody going into the station or leaving passes in front of this kiosk. It is medium sized and rectangular shaped. It is decorated in brown brick, molded into the curly line of the benches at the walls. The wall at the platform includes decorative art: the poles of molded aluminum, which is decorated with cubical and rectangular figures. These dark gray poles give a modern appearance to the walls. In addition, the bridge, which is over the railway line, has thick, dense shafts. The vault in the ceiling is on top of this bridge. The bridge leads to the stair enclosure, and it is well-lighted with beautiful ceiling and wall lights. Finally, the bridge ends in a steel kiosk, which was installed there in the year 2000, in a public square that had been recently redesigned.

 

This kiosk has become a popular place in Montreal, since an extremely talented street musician started performing there. His name is Scott Dunbar. He is a singer and songwriter, who started as a street musician in the markets, streets and metros of Montreal. He has his own set of instruments, including an accordion, an acoustic guitar, a suitcase that serves as a drum, a broiler pan that he stomps upon, and a metal chain that is coiled around his leg and rattles, when he stomps. It is amazing that he has created so many unusual instruments using just odds and ends. Imagination is not the only advantage that Scott possesses. He also has a wonderful voice, which ranges from being warm and rough to melodic and smooth. Scott combines such genres as folk, pop, blues, soul and country. This is one of the reasons why he is so popular among a great number of people with different interests, hobbies, and even music preferences.

 

Almost every week, Dunbar comes to Mont Royal, sits down in front of the famous kiosk and starts singing and playing his unique instruments. His sound is extremely melodious, and his songs are very positive. Nevertheless, they do not lack sense and, sometimes, they have a social and political implication. Scott Dunbar’s most popular song is “Tin Foil Hat”, which he sings every time he appears at Mont Royal. It is a catch tune about life. It offers advice to children, and also has a nostalgic touch about losing a loved one. This positive song is easy to recognize, not only because of Scott’s amazing voice, but also because of its perfect and unusual sound. When the musician starts singing it, people who are in a hurry suddenly stop, and some of them even exclaim: “Hey, just listen! It is Scott singing!” or “Oh, it is my favorite song, Tin Foil Hat!” After saying these words, people rush to their favorite kiosk. With the smiles on their faces, they greet the talented musician.

 

During Scott’s performances, the atmosphere at Mont Royal is eccentric. The event makes people happy and joyful; they sing together with the musician and even ask him to play the songs they want to hear. It is not uncommon to see people standing in front of the kiosk, or surrounding the musician while cheering him on. Mont Royal is a beautiful and well-known place, but the music and the crowd make it even more beautiful and present it in vibrant colors. Now the place has become more vivid and busy; it looks like a wonderland to hundreds of people, who are too different to be similar. In the crowd, one can see business ladies and men, housewives, students, schoolboys and girls, and people who belong to various subcultures. Besides, these people are in different social status, as well as of different age groups. One can see elderly people, adults, youths, and even little children. When they hear Scott singing, children usually pull their mother’s hands and ask in a thin voice: “Mummy, please, let’s stay and listen to Dee, dee, dee…” “Dee, dee, dee” are the sounds from Dunbar’s song. People feel enlightened and entertained by the performances from Scott. Dunbar is very talented, that is why he is able to not only write his own songs, but to make various covers on different famous singers. One of the most popular covers by this fantastic street musician is a cover on Michael Jackson’s “Billy Jean.” However, Scott’s own songs are rather popular, as well. People like these songs and recognize them everywhere in Montreal and even in other cities and countries.

 

Watching a happy audience with the smiles on their kind faces, singing together and sharing their feelings, giving a part of their soul to the art and the musician they are listening to is priceless. Mothers hold their young ones high so that the children can catch a glimpse of the entertainer. Teenagers record the singer on their mobile devices so they can show their friends at home. The now popular kiosk of Mont Royal, with its bull brown bricks and bright red roofing, is suitable for the atmosphere. People, the musician, and the songs they sing together make one feel like home. It seems that people become kinder, more light-hearted, and free. When a person wants to have a rest, he goes to his favorite place where he can relax. Undoubtedly, it is very good that Montreal has such a special place for its citizens. It is easy to see how a place can change from plain and void to a busy and entertaining site for happiness. In addition, it becomes something lovely, favorite and even native.

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