Future Work and Family BalanceFuture Work and Family Balance

Future Work and Family BalanceFuture Work and Family Balance essay

For decades, people look for harmony between work and family. Despite these two concepts of life relating to each other, they affect each other directly. As some people consider work as a means of getting joy, creativity, self-realization, some others have a different perception towards work. They define work as monotony and necessity. People work to get the money to pay bills, buy food and clothing, pay for school and support their family. The problem of balance between family and work is one of major concerns of sociologists and psychologists nowadays. The essay will focus on analyzing three trends that are anticipated to affect how workers balance their work and family life in the future.


Work as a context for growth and personal development rather than only a way to earn a living. This trend has an influence on the relationship between work and family life in the future. The current trend among many people is working for personal developments as opposed to the initial approach to work where most people considered working in order to earn. It is seen that in the future people will focus more on their personal development and therefore there ought to have more cohesion between family life and work. As it is noted by Dr. Wallen (2002), “The emergence of a tightening labor market and the increased emphasis on human resources as a competitive element serve to underpin the importance of developing innovative ways of raising labor supply. Family-friendly policies can serve a dual purpose. They should not only be business oriented but should also meet the needs of employees with family responsibilities” (p.42).


Continuing technological advances that allow for increased flexibility in where and how work is completed. Due to the continued technological changes, it is expected that work done manually will reduce. This also has an influence on the time spent while working. Therefore, workers will be left with more time left to spend with their families. In her study, Balancing Work and Family: the Role of the Workplace, Jacqueline Wallen notes that the types of working arrangement can be categorized into two broad groups in terms of their different levels of flexibility. Temporal flexibility relates to variations in the number of hours worked and includes less than full-time work (including job-sharing and other forms of part-time working), flextime, career breaks and term time working. Locational Flexibility relates to the choice of working location and varying the geographical location of the workplace to meet the changing needs of employers and or employees. This is a new form of flexible working. It is rapidly developing with technological advances, particularly in the information technology (IT) area.


Further in Chapter 14, Wallen says ‘new work arragments have the promise of producing new ways of thinking of work and family’ The author uses the term ‘old and new paradigms for work’. A new approach to a problem implies a change of view on the problem. For example, changing concepts such as ‘consumerism’ to ‘appropriate consumption’, ‘people fit jobs’ – ‘jobs fit people’ and so on. Wallen admits: ’In the new paradigm identity is seen as transcending one’s job, partly because there is less emphasis on job security and achieving stability and more willingness to change jobs and to take risks’ (Wallen, 2002, p.139). In the future job market will be more aggressive because of the fact that more talented people will be attracted by companies that give them better working conditions (flexible work, part-time work, work sharing etc.) However Wallen says, that in the new paradigm of work there are some disadvantages and the author finds some decisions to upgrade it.


Increasing importance of family caregiving, childcare, elder care and caring for family members with illness or disabilities is another trend that will have an influence on the future family. With the current trends among different people, there is a change on how people view family duties. More working people are not only working on their duties in their businesses but are also sparing time for their families. Currently, many people are According to the recent study performed by researchers of Michigan State University, a growing number of workers who do not have families and children cannot find the time and energy to engage in their hobbies. They are less satisfied with their lives and show more signs of depression and anxiety. Ann Marie Ryan, a professor of psychology at Michigan State University and one of the study’s authors, states that according to the respondents, after having performed their duties at work, they have no energy or desire to spend time with friends or entertain themselves in any other way (Keeney, Boyd, Sinha, Westring & Ryan, 2013). Many large companies focus on finding balance between work and family and tend to ignore the specific needs of workers without families. Jessica Keeney advises organizations to seek and improve their policies in relation to employees, and consider offering bonuses such as flexible working hours not only to parents raising children, but also to the single employees. (Keeney, Boyd, Sinha, Westring & Ryan, 2013).


In conclusion, the problem of balancing between work and family is important and requires solutions in the near future. With the current trends and people’s perception towards work and family life, future balancing is possible. Today’s companies and firms help employees balance work and family responsibilities in many ways. The problem of balancing between work and family is also complicated economic issues. Thus, the higher the wealth of the family, the easier it is to organize child-care and depend care.

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The Discriminatory Tendencies of Addiction

Drug addiction is a social problem that may have negative effects to the society. Richardson described addiction as a “diseases affecting the brain resulting from a change in the chemical pathways which occurs as a result of the highs and lows of repeated drug use” (Richardson). Overall, there are various factors that make certain groups of people more vulnerable to drug addiction in the society than others; therefore, whereas all individuals might develop addictive behaviors, some groups of people such as children of addicts, aggressive young men, people with diagnosed depression, and bipolar illness are often more vulnerable to addictive conditions, such state is propagated by factors such as family history, background of the neighborhood and the individual’s values and tolerance level thereby justifying the fact that addiction affects people in a discriminatory manner.


 First and foremost, addiction is determined by an individual’s age. Generally, young people are more vulnerable to addiction. Such a scenario is caused by the fact that teenagers tend to engage in experimental consumption of addictive drugs (Richardson). Satel noted that brain physiology is a central factor that influences the development of addictive behaviors among individuals (323). As such, teenagers are often more vulnerable to addictive conditions because of the fact that they are curious and tend to experiment every aspect of life.


In addition, an individual’s addiction ability may be influenced by frustration and hopelessness resulting from sexual molestation and other forms of abuse. Richardson reports that individuals who had been sexually abused during childhood are often more vulnerable to addiction as compared to individuals who had not undergone such trauma (Richardson). In addition, studies show that individuals who have various forms of mental complications are often more vulnerable to addiction as compared to people who do not have any complication.


Additionally, family history may influence an individual’s vulnerability to addiction. Richardson reported that individuals with family members who are addicted to drugs are often more vulnerable to addiction than those without an addicted family member. It is also believed parents who consume alcohol and other drugs tend to influence their children to develop addictive behaviors towards such drugs. In addition, certain individuals have genes that are more vulnerable to addiction as compared to others. Often individuals with such genes find it hard to quit the consumption of a given drug. On the other hand, some individuals possess genes that discourage them from getting addicted. For instance, some individuals have genes that make them feel uncomfortable whenever they consume an addictive drug.


Similarly, the nature of the surrounding neighborhood might also influence individuals to become drug addicts. It is believed that the numbers of individuals who are addicted to various drugs are often higher in poor income neighborhoods as compared to the high income neighborhoods. First and foremost, poor neighborhoods do not provide good role models to teenagers. As a result, young people in poor neighborhoods often perceive the use of drugs as a normal. Consequently, most teenagers engage in experimental drug use due to such attitude. Moreover, individuals staying in poor neighborhoods are often affected by depression and other mental problems due to the fact that poor neighborhoods are often associated with high unemployment rates, poor shelters and low living standards. Such factors make poor neighborhood residents more vulnerable to drug addiction as compared to residents of high income neighborhoods.


Furthermore, an individual’s attitudes, values, and behaviors may also influence the level of vulnerability of a particular individual to addiction (Satel 323). Generally, individuals who possess a higher level of tolerance for risk are more likely to engage in addictive drug abuse. On the other hand, individuals with low level of tolerance for risky behaviors often assess the effects of a drug based on the users’ health. Satel asserted that addiction “selects people who are bad at delaying gratification and gauging consequences, people who are impulsive, who think that they have little to lose, have few competing interests, or are willing to lie to a spouse” (323). As a result, low risk tolerant individuals are less likely to engage in addictive consumption of various drugs


In addition, children from unstable family backgrounds are more vulnerable to addiction. Such a scenario is caused by the fact unstable family backgrounds are often associated with ineffective parental guidance. As a result, children from such backgrounds may engage in drug abuse and ultimately become addicted to drugs. In addition, teenagers who drop out of school and children who have various academic challenges are often more vulnerable to addiction. Sometimes, unstable families might make children go through traumatic issues. For instance, some children are often exposed to domestic violence between the parents. As a result, such children may consume drugs continuously in order to help them neutralize the traumatizing memories of violence and other negative issues in their families. Unfortunately, such continuous use of a drug might result into addiction.


In conclusion, factors such as family background, an individual’s genetic makeup, and neighborhood background determine the extent to which one is vulnerable to addiction. Therefore, psychologists, addiction counselors and other relevant stakeholders should consider factors that predispose an individual to addiction to enable them offer effective counseling services to drug addicts.

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Similarities between the Position of Arab-American after September 11, 2001 and the Position of Japanese-Americans after December 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbor)


Prior to 9/11, Arab-Americans had a similar experience like other immigrants in the United States.  Studies shows that before the 9/11 incident, Arab-Americans were recognized for being economically, politically, and spiritually diverse group (Katherine, 2010). However, following the 9/11 attack that was carried out by radical Al-Qaeda terrorists, fear, sorrow, and anger of the attack led many non-Arab Americans citizens to associate Arab-Americans with the 9/11 attack (Katherine, 2010). As a result, barely a year after the attack, over 700 violent incidents targeting Arab-Americans were reported in the United States; a typical indication that the 9/11 attack the relationship between Arab-Americans and other races in the United States. .


Similarly, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941 led to souring relationship between Japanese-Americans and non-Japanese Americans. For instance, in February 1942, barely two months after the attack, President Roosevelt issued an order which led to the relocation of Japanese-Americans, both citizens and aliens (Morella, 2012). Such order was meant to protect Japanese-Americans from attacks by Americans who had developed anti-Japanese attitudes.


The 9/11 attack led to discrimination and anti-trust towards Arab-Americans. Studies show that approximately 65% of Arab-Americans reported incidences of embarrassment (Katherine, 2010). The 9/11 attack created a scenario where Arab-Americans were referred to as extremists and terrorists. Such discrimination and anti-trust towards the Arab-Americans (Muslim) made them to be denied permission to build a mosque near ground zero on the basis that they may cause more harm to Americans (Katherine, 2010). Similarly, the December 7, 1947 attacks led to embarrassment and discrimination against Japanese-Americans (Morella, 2012). In fact, within weeks all Japanese-Americans were sent to permanent relocations centers outside restricted military zones because they were considered to be a security threat.  


Differences between the Position of Arab-American after September 11, 2001 and the Position of Japanese-Americans after December 7, 1941 (Pearl Harbor)


Whereas after the December 7, 1947 tragedy Roosevelt President ordered more than 117, 000 persons of Japanese descent to be relocated to military restricted center (Morella, 2012); for instance, Persons of Japanese ancestry in Western Washington State were relocated to Puyallup Fairgrounds near Tacoma, this differed from the December 7, 1947 incident, because the 9/11 terrorists attack did not lead to relocation of Arab-Americans. For instance, Muslims enjoyed freedom of movement and religion within the US even after the terror attack as evidenced by the fact that they were granted permission to construct a mosque in New York despite that they were denied such capacity immediately after the terror attack. As evident in the 9/11 tragedy, terrorism affects everyone. Depression afflicted many people both Americans and non-Americans. Such experience also portrayed America as vulnerable and that terrorism is the fact of life for everyone. In addition, the December 7, 1947 tragedy called for a different attitude about war and giving to the war. Moreover, although war is not part of culture, war is the culture, that is why people’s way of life changes radically following war.

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Why People Use Drug and How the Society Reacts to It

Why People Use Drug and How the Society Reacts to It - essay sample

There is hardly anyone who is unaware of the severe consequences drugs have on a person ‒ both on his or her body and psychology‒ yet the number of drug addicted people is rising at an alarming rate. The reasons for that should be found in a person itself and its motives to use drugs, as well as in a way society chooses to deal with this acute problem.


There are several possible reasons why a person decides to use drugs knowing that it is dangerous. Firstly, this might be due to an individual’s difficult emotional state, such as anxiety or depression. Nowadays, when the life is getting more and more stressful, people often resort to drugs to make their life easier, even if just for a short period of time. Drug intoxication might as well be a way to cope with bad memories. Secondly, a person might see others having fun while being intoxicated, and conclude that drugs can make their lives more interesting, too. There is also boredom which leads to teens’ and young adults’ drug addiction. All mentioned above means that people use drugs being well aware of the consequences, but sometimes a person become addicted “accidentally”, for example, when taking pain killers while treating a serious injury. In this case, prescribed drugs result in dependency.


It is also known that people with a family history of drug abuse are more likely to become addicted. Thus, a family, culture and the society plays a major role in an individual’s choice. This is logical, because all of them shape person’s character and lifestyle. For instance, if there is a lack of the facilities for youth, they have more free time than needed and use drugs to escape boredom. Or, if a society has a strong religious commitment, there is a chance people will not use drugs because their religion forbids them to. However, these are only some of the reasons why people take or do not take drugs, and it does not mean that an individual who, for example, believes in God, will never become drug addicted.


The two ways in which the society suggests to cope with drug addiction are the harm reduction and abstinence. In my opinion, the first model is more appropriate since it helps minimize the risks for other people. For example, giving new syringes in exchange for the used ones can help protect the users from HIV, and, as the result, keep it from further spreading. Apart from that, as it has already been mentioned, the reasons why people use drugs vary greatly, and simply taking away a coping mechanism cannot resolve the issue. Therefore, I regard the harm reduction model as prior to the abstinence-based medical one.

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Sociological Theories

Sociological Theories essay

Work and family balance is still differentiated along gender lines. Men are traditionally viewed as providers, and are expected to support the family economically. At home, men are deemed aggressive and task oriented; they are the unrivaled instrumental leaders and have minimal involvement in housework even when the spouses are working. Women were traditionally expected to stay at home, carrying out housework and nurturing the young; they are the expressive leaders (Wallen, 2002). A present day working woman has to grapple with the responsibilities of maintaining a home. Girls grow up knowing that it is their responsibility to take care of the home and children while the boys gain the mentality that they are the sole providers and, therefore, should not involve themselves in any housework (Calhoun et al., 2002).


 Working parents are nowadays resorting to different childcare arrangements to reduce absenteeism at work. Workplace policies, like those prohibiting the use of company resources for family-related issues, were introduced to draw the boundaries between work and family lives. However, there is a significant integration of family and work life in some cases, effectively eroding the work-personal life boundary. The family set-up has substantially changed thanks to the division of labor and the shifting family composition (Wallen, 2002).


Using the conflict theory, Wallen (2002) analyzes the conflicting nature of the roles played by men and women in the workplace and in the family. Traditionally, a man’s wage was given primary importance as opposed to the woman’s wage. Employment of women accords them greater decision-making ability, setting the stage for marital conflict. Men do not take an equal share of responsibility at home, and the women bear the greatest responsibility (Wallen, 2002).


Work and family represent competing interests of various parties involved. It has been shown that among dual couples, one may take work-related stress of his or her partner personally, leading to marital conflict. Presence of extended family members may also cause conflict, as they compete for attention and articulate their demands. There may be a conflict in the workplace between the employee and employer when the former tries to balance the obligations at the workplace with impromptu family needs (Wallen, 2002).


Symbolic interactionalism theory derives the meanings that people attach to work and family, and how the meanings shape their daily interactions. A significant number of people regard work as interference, reducing the time they spend with their families, causing fatigue, irritability, and lack of energy. Women abandon their traditional housekeeping role to seek employment in order to supplement or provide income for family sustenance. Men with working wives assist them in chores around the home, easing the pressure on them (Wallen, 2002).


Functionalist theory explores how each individual is part of a whole, and that whole is an interrelated system of parts, each having a role to play. At work, one may play a certain role that may either conflict or complement his or her role in the family. The individual may adopt multiple strategies to ensure the smooth running of the family. At work, the skills acquired while carrying out of one’s roles and attitude towards the roles may either complement the roles in the family or cause problems in the family (Calhoun et al., 2002).


Social, economic, and technological changes in society negatively affect the individual by bringing about unprecedented occurrences. At the workplace, a worker might be unable to take up the new roles expected of him or her: causing a breakdown in the work life. At home, the individual might be alienated from the family due to advances in technology and increased economic pressures which he or she cannot accommodate (Wallen, 2002).

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Socialization of Girls

Socialization of Girls essay

The society has socialized girls differently from boys. Right from childhood, girls are oriented to be emotional beings with high levels of emotional expression. For example, the society has socialized girls to adopt certain codes of behavior and values as normative. Girls have high levels of interactivity, socially and emotionally connected to network of friends which are made faster, lost faster and revived faster. Girls, therefore, have the ability to handle the ups and downs of friendships in a more secure way. For example, they can fight and tear into each other, report to the teachers, parents, and older siblings but will never hold grudges forever. Gender socialization has taught girls right from childhood to be forgiving and very accommodative and to be ladylike (Handel 301).


Social codes of conduct orient girls to be very emotionally expressive and will openly break down and cry over their hurt, pains and aches. However, this is only short-lived as girls soon overcome their disappointment and move on with life. Unlike boys, girls will openly avoid areas, things or people that they perceive to be a threat to them. Thus girls easily accept defeat, openly express their fears and weaknesses (Katz 221-2220). The social codes orient them that way. This way, girls are often too quick to admit that they need help especially when they are in danger since social values orient them to be cautious about threats, dangers and risks. Reading this background information will enable one to identify the role of gender socialization in gender specific traits and behaviors for both boys and girls.


Katz makes reference to code of conduct and the way in which the society uses this powerful tool to influence upbringing and socialization of children from childhood to adulthood (Katz 221). The codes have been used by the society as a weapon to influence both boys and girls to behave in a certain stereotypical and pre-determined ways. Implicitly, Katz views this approach to be detrimental since it shuts the potential of girls to achieve certain goals in life. Boys are also socialized not to run away from problems. This is risky because some risks are fatal and it is only prudent for one to flee irrespective of the sex. The socialization in childhood influences children’s prospects in adulthood.

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Enjoying While Waiting

Enjoying While Waiting essay

Travelling around Montreal, one cannot help but visit the beautiful and important places in the city. With the help of maps and travel guides, one can get to any destination in Montreal. One of these places is Mont Royal, the station of the Montreal Metro, which is part of the city’s Orange Line and is a fast system of transportation. Société de Transport de Montréal controls and operates Mont Royal. The station is located in the Le Plateau-Mont-Royal district, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was opened in 1966, on October 14. The station is currently represented as a part of Montreal’s metro. The design of the metro station was developed by Victor Prus. Mont Royal station is built in a tunnel. The station’s single transept level mezzanine serves as the entrance. The station’s artwork has been created with the help of 32 narrow vertical aluminum poles at a platform. Those were created by a talented Quebec artist Charles Daudelin. Also, the place was re-designed and new artwork was added, namely, a poem by Gérald Godin, which is bricked into the facade of the building. Open arrival at this place, one is attracted to the vibrant and authentic surrounding. It is a truly scenic place.


This station is named after the Mount Royal Avenue. It is called so, because it leads to the foot of Mount Royal. There is colorful kiosk at the station. It is located at the entrance of the train station. This is strategic since everybody going into the station or leaving passes in front of this kiosk. It is medium sized and rectangular shaped. It is decorated in brown brick, molded into the curly line of the benches at the walls. The wall at the platform includes decorative art: the poles of molded aluminum, which is decorated with cubical and rectangular figures. These dark gray poles give a modern appearance to the walls. In addition, the bridge, which is over the railway line, has thick, dense shafts. The vault in the ceiling is on top of this bridge. The bridge leads to the stair enclosure, and it is well-lighted with beautiful ceiling and wall lights. Finally, the bridge ends in a steel kiosk, which was installed there in the year 2000, in a public square that had been recently redesigned.


This kiosk has become a popular place in Montreal, since an extremely talented street musician started performing there. His name is Scott Dunbar. He is a singer and songwriter, who started as a street musician in the markets, streets and metros of Montreal. He has his own set of instruments, including an accordion, an acoustic guitar, a suitcase that serves as a drum, a broiler pan that he stomps upon, and a metal chain that is coiled around his leg and rattles, when he stomps. It is amazing that he has created so many unusual instruments using just odds and ends. Imagination is not the only advantage that Scott possesses. He also has a wonderful voice, which ranges from being warm and rough to melodic and smooth. Scott combines such genres as folk, pop, blues, soul and country. This is one of the reasons why he is so popular among a great number of people with different interests, hobbies, and even music preferences.


Almost every week, Dunbar comes to Mont Royal, sits down in front of the famous kiosk and starts singing and playing his unique instruments. His sound is extremely melodious, and his songs are very positive. Nevertheless, they do not lack sense and, sometimes, they have a social and political implication. Scott Dunbar’s most popular song is “Tin Foil Hat”, which he sings every time he appears at Mont Royal. It is a catch tune about life. It offers advice to children, and also has a nostalgic touch about losing a loved one. This positive song is easy to recognize, not only because of Scott’s amazing voice, but also because of its perfect and unusual sound. When the musician starts singing it, people who are in a hurry suddenly stop, and some of them even exclaim: “Hey, just listen! It is Scott singing!” or “Oh, it is my favorite song, Tin Foil Hat!” After saying these words, people rush to their favorite kiosk. With the smiles on their faces, they greet the talented musician.


During Scott’s performances, the atmosphere at Mont Royal is eccentric. The event makes people happy and joyful; they sing together with the musician and even ask him to play the songs they want to hear. It is not uncommon to see people standing in front of the kiosk, or surrounding the musician while cheering him on. Mont Royal is a beautiful and well-known place, but the music and the crowd make it even more beautiful and present it in vibrant colors. Now the place has become more vivid and busy; it looks like a wonderland to hundreds of people, who are too different to be similar. In the crowd, one can see business ladies and men, housewives, students, schoolboys and girls, and people who belong to various subcultures. Besides, these people are in different social status, as well as of different age groups. One can see elderly people, adults, youths, and even little children. When they hear Scott singing, children usually pull their mother’s hands and ask in a thin voice: “Mummy, please, let’s stay and listen to Dee, dee, dee…” “Dee, dee, dee” are the sounds from Dunbar’s song. People feel enlightened and entertained by the performances from Scott. Dunbar is very talented, that is why he is able to not only write his own songs, but to make various covers on different famous singers. One of the most popular covers by this fantastic street musician is a cover on Michael Jackson’s “Billy Jean.” However, Scott’s own songs are rather popular, as well. People like these songs and recognize them everywhere in Montreal and even in other cities and countries.


Watching a happy audience with the smiles on their kind faces, singing together and sharing their feelings, giving a part of their soul to the art and the musician they are listening to is priceless. Mothers hold their young ones high so that the children can catch a glimpse of the entertainer. Teenagers record the singer on their mobile devices so they can show their friends at home. The now popular kiosk of Mont Royal, with its bull brown bricks and bright red roofing, is suitable for the atmosphere. People, the musician, and the songs they sing together make one feel like home. It seems that people become kinder, more light-hearted, and free. When a person wants to have a rest, he goes to his favorite place where he can relax. Undoubtedly, it is very good that Montreal has such a special place for its citizens. It is easy to see how a place can change from plain and void to a busy and entertaining site for happiness. In addition, it becomes something lovely, favorite and even native.

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